Human Performance Technology Glossary of Terms
Analyst - conducts troubleshooting to isolate the cause (s) of human performance gaps or identifies areas in which human performance can be improved (Rothwell, 2000).
Cause Analysis - the process of determining the root cause (s) of past, present, or future performance gaps. This process involves examining the discrepancies identified through performance analysis and determining their root causes.
Change Manager - similar to a project manager; the member of a human performance technology team who guides and follows through with interventions to ensure they are implemented in ways that will achieve the desired results; also help individuals in the intervention achieve desired results (Rothwell 2013)
Corollary: Small percentile who are close to the exceptional performance. (Rothwell, 2007) A natural consequence or result. In mathematics, it is a proportion that is incidentally proved in proving another proposition, an immediate consequence or easily drawn conclusion.
Diagnostic Model - A type of model classification in which the model informs the performance analyst WHERE Human Performance Technology can be applied can be applied. Harless, an HPT Pioneer, with his attention focused on early determination of goals and performance, subscribes to this type of model. Rummler carried the diagnostic analysis to its fullest range, with separate organizational and individual performance domains that require separate solutions. Later diagnostic models followed in the footsteps of Harless and Rummler. (Rosenberg, 1992) (b)
Evaluator - the member of a human performance technology team who assesses the end result of the intervention implementation and provides feedback to stakeholders about the benefits of that intervention (Rothwell 2013)
Exemplar - The most continuous worthy performance that we can realistically expect to achieve. Should be viewed in terms of particular accomplishments.
Gap analysis - Process from which a company compares its actual performance to its expected performance. Where are we and where do we want to be? Comparison of the actual performance with potential performance.
Human Performance Improvement (HPI) - The achievement through people in which their successful accomplishments are valued by all organizational stakeholders.
Intervention - Interventions can be both Instructional and non-instructional based on improvements in knowledge and skill or process, performance, plans and results. Interventions close performance gaps, can be cost effective and are linked to the value of problem solving.
Intervention Specialist - the member of a human performance technology team who identifies an appropriate intervention to address performance gaps and solve the problem by eliminating the cause of it (Rothwell 2013)
Measurability - Mager championed the concept of measurability. He introduced the concept that performance objectives must be applied under definable conditions and criterion. Analysts must have the ability to measure performance gaps, and eventually performance gains to judge the effectiveness of the interventions. In addition, the existence of measurable performance objectives strengthens the communication between the performance analyst and the business client. Business clients want tangible methods to both quantify and justify their investments.
Potential for Improving Performance (PIP) - as explained by Gilbert in his 2nd Leisurely Theorem. Gilbert explains that the PIP is the ratio of exemplary performance to typical performance.
Process Model - A type of model classification in which the model instructs the performance analyst on HOW Human Performance Technology can be applied. There are five general characteristics that help identify process models: 1) most models in this group are linear or sequential, 2) they have phased or grouped activities, 3) they are driven by GAP analysis, 4) they are intervention oriented, and 5) they usually contain a feedback mechanism. (Rosenberg, 1992) (b)
Thorndike's Law of Effect - When a correct response is reinforced by a reward, then the reward strengthens the bond between the environment and the appropriate response which in turn equates feedback with reinforcement. (Thorndike, 1913, p. 288)
Vantage Point - A place or position of view; perspective and context; in HPT, performance is viewed at the organizational level, the work or process level, and the individual performer level (Rothwell, 2007)